What Kingdom Do Frogs Belong To?

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With so many unique traits and abilities, frogs are undeniably fascinating creatures. But, there has been plenty of confusion concerning their scientific classification, leaving enthusiasts and animal lovers to wonder which groups frogs fall under. 

Frogs fall within the Animalia kingdom, the Chordata phylum, the Vertebrata subphylum, the Amphibia class, and the order of Anura. Further scientific classification groupings differ between genera and species, depending on behaviors, traits, and physical characteristics. 

Although frogs commonly fall within certain scientific classification groups, some groups may vary depending on the nature of numerous frog species. Join us as we discuss the taxonomy and scientific classifications of frog species. 

KingdomAnimalia 
Phylum Chordata 
Subphylum Vertebrata 
Class Amphibia 
Clade Salentia 
Order Anura 
Suborder Likely Neobatrachia, but could be Archaeobatrachia or Mesobatrachia.
Family Likely families within the Hyloidea and Ranoidea superfamilies.
Genus There are over 300 genera 

What Kingdom Do Frogs Belong To?

According to Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish taxonomist and zoologist, frogs fall within the Animalia kingdom. The Animalia kingdom includes over 1.5 million animal species and has numerous synonyms, including Metazoa, Choanoblastaea, Gastrobionta, Zooaea, Euanimalia, and Animalae.

The Animalia kingdom generally comprises Multicellular organisms and Eukaryotic organisms with a few exceptions. Classification is typically based on the following criteria: 

  • Can consume organic material
  • Can breathe oxygen
  • Can move
  • Can reproduce sexually
  • Goes through an ontogenetic state

What Phylum Do Frogs Belong To?

According to Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, a German naturalist, physician, and zoologist, frogs belong to the Chordata phylum. These organisms are bilaterally symmetrical, have a coelom, display metameric segmentation, and possess a circulatory system. 

The Chordata phylum demands five key primary traits at some stage throughout the larval phase:

  • Notochord
  • A dorsal hollow nerve cord
  • Endostyle or thyroid
  • Pharyngeal slits
  • Post-anal tail

What Subphylum Do Frogs Belong To?

Frogs are classified within the Vertebrata subphylum, as they possess a backbone and numerous other bones throughout their bodies. The Vertebrata subphylum was researched and outlined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist who played a massive part in biological evolution.

Frogs are classified as Vertabrata because they have the following traits for scientific classification:

  • A vertebral column running from the head to the anal region.
  • A central nervous system that is based on a hollow and lengthwise nerve cord.
  • The presence of neural crest cells, the progenitors of stem cells.
  • Molecular signatures (conserved signature indels) in protein sequences: 5 CSIs in EF-2, Euk IF-3, AdK, and a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-related protein.

The classification is primarily based on these factors since the word subphylum is based on the Latin word ‘vertebratus’, which concerns any bones or segments that comprise a spinal column. To date, the Vertebrata subphylum comprises approximately 69,963 species (CTNF).

What Class Do Frogs Belong To?

All frogs fall within the Amphibia class, irrespective of whether the frog species is aquatic, arboreal, or terrestrial. The word ‘amphibian’ can be roughly translated to ‘two lives’, and this classification is valid since all frogs spend part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land. 

Frogs belong to the Salientia clade, a collective group of amphibians, some of which are already extinct. Still, these creatures are more closely related to frogs than they are related to amphibians such as newts and salamanders. 

What Order Do Frogs Belong To?

According to André Marie Constant Duméril, a French zoologist, all frog species are classified within the Anura order.  ‘Anura’ translates to ‘without tail’ in Ancient Greek.

General Anura characteristics include a squat, tailless adult body with long hind limbs, large eyes, and an external tympanum. Although frogs have tails within the tadpole development phase, they lose their tails as they metamorph into froglets and ultimately into frogs that live on land and in water. 

What Suborder Do Frogs Belong To?

Present-day frogs will likely belong to the Neobatrachia suborder, but this is not the only group to which frog species may belong. Below are the suborders that are used to group various frog families together. 

  • Archaeobatrachia, comprising four primitive frog families.
  • Mesobatrachia, comprising six families that include more evolutionary intermediate frog species. 
  • Neobatrachia, which is the largest group containing most modern frog families.

What Family Do Frogs Belong To?

The specific frog family will be based on numerous factors, primarily the physical traits and behaviors of different genera and species. Various families comprise numerous frog genera and species. Frogs can also belong to families within the Archaeobatrachia or Mesobatrachia groups. 

Archaeobatrachia Families Mesobatrachia Familes
Ascaphidae
Bombinatoridae
Alytidae (Discoglossidae)
Leiopelmatidae
Megophryidae
Pelobatidae
Pelodytidae
Pipidae
Rhinophrynidae
Scaphiopodidae
Palaeobatrachidae

However, most modern frog species worldwide belong to families within the Neobatrachia suborder. This group has been divided into two subfamilies, Hyloidea and Ranoidea, which are primarily used to classify common frog species. 

Hyloidea Superfamily

The Hyloidea superfamily stems from a common ancestor, originating around 66 million years ago, and comprises approximately 54% of all living Anuran species. This superfamily is extremely diverse, but these species are tailless and predominantly possess shortened bodies, muscular hind legs, and large mouths. 

Frog FamilyCommon TypesSpecies
AlsodidaeFrom South America between Patagonia and Brazil26
BatrachylidaeCommonly found in South America14
BufonidaeTrue toads700
Brachycephalidae Saddleback Toads; Flea Toads; Big-Headed Frogs70
Craugastoridae Fleshbelly Frogs822
EleutherodactylidaeRobber Frogs223
Allophrynidae Tukeit Hill Frogs3
Centrolenidae Glass Frogs155
CeratophryidaeCommon Horned Frogs12
CycloramphidaeGlass Frogs36
Dendrobatidae Poison Frogs194
Aromobatidae Cryptic Forest Frogs121
HemiphractidaeFrom South and Central America112
Hylidae Tree Frogs711
Hylodidae Native to Brazil47
LeptodactylidaeSouthern Frogs206
PelodryadidaeAustralian Tree Frogs215
Phyllomedusidae Leaf Frogs66
OdontophrynidaeFrom Southern and Eastern America53
Rhinodermatidae Darwin’s Frogs; Mouth-Brooding Frogs3
TelmatobiidaeWater Frogs63

Ranoidea Superfamily

Ranoidea superfamily members are identified by a pectoral girdle that is fused into a single complex. They have no ribs and utilize an axillary grip during amplexus

Frog FamilyPrimary Species TypesSpecies 
RanixalidaeLeaping Frogs10
MantellidaeMalagasy Poison Frogs191
RhacophoridaeAfroasian Tree Frogs321
PyxicephalidaeAfrican Bullfrogs68
PetropedetidaeAfrican Water Frogs; Goliath Frog18
PtychadenidaeGrassland Frogs53
CeratobatrachidaeTriangle Frogs84
BrevicipitidaeRain Frogs31

More About Scientific Classifications of Frogs

Establishing a frog genus is fairly complex, as there are various genus types within each frog family, containing several species types. To date, there are over 300 frog genera throughout the classified superfamilies, determined by the species’ unique traits and characteristics. 

Frogs are remarkably diverse, and they have been steadily evolving over the past few million years. Still, there is a surprising number of links between modern-day frogs and their ancestors, allowing scientists to make taxonomic connections and classify these fascinating creatures accordingly (CTNF).

Learn more about frogs and their scientific classifications in these guides on our blog:

Common Questions on Frog Classifications

What Kingdom do frogs belong to? According to Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish taxonomist and zoologist, frogs fall within the Animalia kingdom. The Animalia kingdom includes over 1.5 million animal species and has numerous synonyms, including Metazoa, Choanoblastaea, Gastrobionta, Zooaea, Euanimalia, and Animalae.

What Phylum do frogs belong to? According to Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, a German naturalist, physician, and zoologist, frogs belong to the Chordata phylum. These organisms are bilaterally symmetrical, have a coelom, display metameric segmentation, and possess a circulatory system. 

What Subphylum do frogs belong to? Frogs are classified within the Vertebrata subphylum, as they possess a backbone and numerous other bones throughout their bodies. The Vertebrata subphylum was researched and outlined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist who played a massive part in biological evolution.

What Class do frogs belong to? All frogs fall within the Amphibia class, irrespective of whether the frog species is aquatic, arboreal, or terrestrial. The word ‘amphibian’ can be roughly translated to ‘two lives’, and this classification is valid since all frogs spend part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land. 

What Order do frogs belong to? According to André Marie Constant Duméril, a French zoologist, all frog species are classified within the Anura order.  ‘Anura’ translates to ‘without tail’ in Ancient Greek.

Sources 

Wikipedia, Phylogeny, Chordate, Vertebrate, Hyloidea, Ranoidea, Archaeobatrachia, Mesobatrachia, Vertebrate, Salientia